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Mathematics


The category of mathematics are works on the abstract study of subjects encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and more; it has no generally accepted definition.

 
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O Na Mole E Ke Anahonua (About the Roots of Geometry)

By: A. M. Legendre

1. O ke Anahonua ka mea e i ike ai ke ano o na mea i hoopalahaiahaia, oia na kaha, a me na ili, a me na paa. Ekolu mau ano o na mea i hoopalahaiahaia, he loa, he laula, a he manoanoa. 2. O ke kaha ; he loa wale no ko ke kaha; aole laula, aole manoanoa. O na welau o ke kaha he mau kiko ia: nolaila, o ke kiko, aole ona loa, aole laula, aole manoanoa, aka he wahi e ku wale ai no. 3. O ke kaha pololei ka loa pokole mai kekahi kiko a i kekahi kiko. 4. O ke kaha pololei o...

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Na Haawina Mua O Ka Hoailona Helu (First Lessons in Algebra)

By: Lahainaluna

Kuai kekahi keiki i ka ohia a me ka alani i na keneta he 12, no ia mau mea. Ua oi pakolu hoi na keneta o ka alani imua o ko ka ohia. Ehia na keneta o kela a o keia? E kau iho i ka w i hoailona no na keneta o ka ohia. A o ka w ke kumukuai i ka ohia, a he pakolu ko ka alani i ko ka ohia; nolaila, he mau w ekolu ke kumukuai i ka alani. He w hookahi ko ka ohia, a he akolu mau w ko ka alani, ina e huia lakou, he mau w eha o ka huina. Aka, he 12 na keneta i lilo no ia m...

Ua oi pa 4 aku na makahiki o Ioane imua o ko Iakobo; a o ka huina o ko laua mau. makahiki, he 20 ia. Ehia na makahiki o kela, o keia? E hoailona i na makahiki o Iakobo i ka w, no ka mea, he pa 4 na makahiki o Ioane i ko Iakobo, 4 mau w ka hoailona o kona mau makahiki. Nolaila, hookahi w a me 4 w, oia no 5 w ka huina o ko laua mau makahiki. Aka, he 20 ka huina o ko laua mau makahiki; nolaila, ua like 5 w me ka 20, a o ka w hookahi me ka hapa 5 o ka 20, oia na makahik...

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He Huinahelu (A Combined Arithmetic)

By: George Leonard

This volume contains basic mathematics (in Hawaiian). It teaches you the numbers in Hawaiian up to one hundred and also basio useful mathematics.

Ehia kahi iloko o ka 10? He 10 a me na kahi ehia iloko o ka 12? He 10 a me na kahi ehia iloko o ka 13? 14? 16? 19? 15? 18? 17? 11? Ehia na umi iloko o ka 20? iloko o ke 30? 40? 60? 80? 60? 70? 50? 90? 100? Ehia na umi a me na kahi iloko o ka 21? iloko o ka 23? 28? 26? 32? 35? 37? 44? 49? 41? 53? 57? 62? 65? 68? 71? 76? 99? 85? 87? 88? 92? 94? 99? He umi a me 1, heaha ia? 10 me 3? 10 me 7? 10 me 9? 2 umi? 2 umi me 1? 2 umi me 5? 2 umi me 7? 3 umi? 3 umi me 2? 3 umi me ...

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He Helu Kamalii (A Child's Arithmetic)

By: Wiliama Fowle

This volume teaches you children's basic arithmetic in Hawaiian.

No ka hana ana i keia Helu, e ahu no ke kumu i mau hua poepoe he kanaha a keu paha i mea heluia; pela no kela keiki keia keiki e ahu no lakou i na hua like. A like me ka hana ana a ke kumu, pela hoi e hana?i kela keiki keia keiki i kana mau hua iho.

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Principa Mathematica

By: Isaac Newton

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton, first published 5 July 1687. Newton also published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, also Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion ...

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New Techniques to Analyse the Prediction of Fuzzy Models

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

For the first time authors have ventured to study, analyse and investigate the properties of the fuzzy models, the experts opinion and so on. Here the concept of merged Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are carried out, which are based on merged graphs and merged matrices. This concept is better than the usual combined Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. Further by this new technique we are able to give equal importance to all the experts who work with the problem. ...

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New Research on Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures

By: Mumtaz Ali; Florentin Smarandache

In this book, the authors define several new neutrosophic algebraic structures and their related properties. The main focus of this book is to study the important class of neutrosophic rings such as neutrosophic LA-semigroup ring, neutrosophic loop ring, neutrosophic groupoid ring and so on. The authors also construct their generalization in each case to study these neutrosophic algebraic structures in a broader sense. The indeterminacy element “I“ gives rise to a bigger...

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Groupoids of Type I and II Using [0, n)

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

Study of algebraic structures built using [0, n) happens to be one of an interesting and innovative research. Here in this book authors define non associative algebraic structures using the interval [0, n). Here the authors define two types of groupoids using [0, n) both of them are of infinite order. It is an open conjecture to find whether these new class of groupoids satisfy any of the special identities like Moufang identity or Bol identity or Bruck identity or so on...

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Algebraic Structures on Finite Complex Modulo Integer Interval C([...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors introduce the notion of finite complex modulo integer intervals. Finite complex modulo integers was introduced by the authors in 2011. Now using this finite complex modulo integer intervals several algebraic structures are built. Further the concept of finite complex modulo integers itself happens to be new and innovative for in case of finite complex modulo integers the square value of the finite complex number varies with varying n of Zn. In case o...

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Distance in Matrices and Their Applications to Fuzzy Models and Ne...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of distance between any two m x n matrices. If the distance is 0 or m x n there is nothing interesting. When the distance happens to be a value t; 0 < t < m x n the study is both innovating and interesting. The three cases of study which is carried out in this book are: 1. If the difference between two square matrices is large, will it imply the eigen values and eigen vectors of those matrices are distinct? Se...

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Collected Papers: Papers of Mathematics or Applied Mathematics. Fi...

By: Florentin Smarandache

This volum includes 37 papers of mathematics or applied mathematics written by the author alone or in collaboration with the following co-authors: Cătălin Barbu, Mihály Bencze, Octavian Cira, Marian Niţu, Ion Pătraşcu, Mircea E. Şelariu, Rajan Alex, Xingsen Li, Tudor Păroiu, Luige Vlădăreanu, Victor Vlădăreanu, Ştefan Vlăduţescu, Yingjie Tian, Mohd Anasri, Lucian Căpitanu, Valeri Kroumov, Kimihiro Okuyama, Gabriela Tonţ, A. A. Adewara, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Mukesh Kumar, S...

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Algebraic Structures on the Fuzzy Interval [0, 1)

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book we introduce several algebraic structures on the special fuzzy interval [0, 1). This study is different from that of the algebraic structures using the interval [0, n) n ≠ 1, as these structures on [0, 1) has no idempotents or zero divisors under ×. Further [0, 1) under product × is only a semigroup. However by defining min(or max) operation in [0, 1); [0, 1) is made into a semigroup. The semigroup under × has no finite subsemigroups but under min or max we ...

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Special Type of Topological Spaces Using [0, n)

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of special type of topological spaces using the interval [0, n). They are very different from the usual topological spaces. Algebraic structure using the interval [0, n) have been systemically dealt by the authors. Now using those algebraic structures in this book authors introduce the notion of special type of topological spaces. Using the super subset interval semigroup special type of super interval topologi...

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Theory of Abel Grassmann's Groupoids

By: Madad Khan; Florentin Smarandache

An AG-groupoid is an algebraic structure that lies in between a groupoid and a commutative semigroup. It has many characteristics similar to that of a commutative semigroup. If we consider x2y2= y2x2, which holds for all x, y in a commutative semigroup, on the other hand one can easily see that it holds in an AG-groupoid with left identity e and in AG**-groupoids. This simply gives that how an AG-groupoid has closed connections with commutative agebras. We extend now for...

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255 Compiled and Solved Problems in Geometry and Trigonometry : Fr...

By: Florentin Smarandache

This book is a translation from Romanian of "Probleme Compilate şi Rezolvate de Geometrie şi Trigonometrie" (University of Kishinev Press, Kishinev, 169 p., 1998), and includes problems of 2D and 3D Euclidean geometry plus trigonometry, compiled and solved from the Romanian Textbooks for 9th and 10th grade students, in the period 1981-1988, when Florentin Smarandache was a professor of mathematics at the "Petrache Poenaru" National College in Balcesti, Valcea (Romania), ...

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Multidimensional MOD Planes

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

The authors define MOD transformations and discuss several interesting features about them. So chapter one of this book serves the purpose of only recalling these properties. Various properties of MOD interval transformation of varying types are discussed. Next the mod planes are introduced mainly to make this book a self contained one. Finally the new notion of higher and mixed multidimensional MOD planes are introduced and their properties analysed. Several problems ar...

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Probleme de geometrie și trigonometrie, compilate și rezolvate : E...

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

Acest volum este o versiune nouă, revizuită și adăugită, a "Problemelor Compilate şi Rezolvate de Geometrie şi Trigonometrie" (Universitatea din Moldova, Chișinău, 169 p., 1998), și include probleme de geometrie și trigonometrie, compilate și soluționate în perioada 1981-1988. Gradul de dificultate al problemelor este de la mediu spre greu. Cartea se dorește material didactic pentru elevi, studenți și profesori. This book is a translation from Romanian of "Probleme Co...

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MOD Pseudo Linear Algebras

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time elaborately study the notion of MOD vector spaces and MOD pseudo linear algebras. This study is new, innovative and leaves several open conjectures. In the first place as distributive law is not true one can define only MOD pseudo linear algebras. Secondly most of the classical theorems true in case of linear algebras are not true in case of MOD pseudo linear algebras. Finding even eigen values and eigen vectors happens to be a cha...

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MOD Planes: A New Dimension to Modulo Theory

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book for the first time authors study MOD planes using modulo intervals. These planes unlike the real plane have only one quadrant so the study is carried aut in a compact space but infinite in dimension. The authors have given seven MOD planes viz real MOD planes (MOD real plane) finite complex MOD plane, neutrosophic MOD plane, fuzzy MOD plane, (or MOD fuzzy plane), MOD dual number plane, MOD special dual like number plane and MOD special quasi dual number plan...

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Natural Neutrosophic Numbers and MOD Neutrosophic Numbers

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors answer the question proposed by Florentin Smarandache “Does there exist neutrosophic numbers which are such that they take values differently and behave differently from I; the indeterminate?”. The authors have constructed a class of natural neutrosophic numbers. Further there are more natural neutrosophic numbers in the MOD interval [0, m). This concept is thoroughly analysed in the second chapter. Using all types of MOD planes and MOD intervals, th...

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